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ɡ "
Among the revenue instruments, the most important role is played by taxes; however, governments rely also on fees, on the prices of public utilities, and on sales of assets. In addition to providing revenue, each tax can also be used to achieve particular goals. For example, important duties can be used to influence the balance of payments; excise taxes can be used to influence consumption patterns, and so on."
ʡ ɡ . ǡ . .

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1-
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C= 200 + 0.75 R
I=300
( )
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R= C + I => R= 200 + 0.75 R+300
=> R-0.75 R = 500
=> R 500/ 0.25
=> R= 2000
2500 ɡ 500 .
.
500 R1 R2 ( 125 4 = 500 ).
:
12:








2500 R2 2000R1
1-2- ( )
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13

2 2
1
2 1
1

2 1
1-3-
.
2500 2000 500 ɡ .
14








1 2
1-4- ( )
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15


1 1

1 2 2
2

1 2

ɡ .
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2- *
ɡ .
:
=
= + +
(1) Y= C+I+G
(y-t) C+C0+a(y-t) (2)
(I) :Y=C0+a(Y-T) +I+G (3)

Y = 1 (C0-aT+I+G)
1-a
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.
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2-1-
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(ΔG) :y+∆y= 1 (C0-aT+I+G+∆G) (4)
(1-a)
(3) (4)
∆y= 1 ∆G (5)
1-a
(∆G) (∆y) .
:
16-
(r)

3 2 1


r0

(y) 0
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( = ).
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(∆G) ( 1) 2 Y2 y2-y1
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∆y = y2-y1 = ∆G (1/1-a).(6)
( ) ɡ .
(∆y) ∆G(1/1-a) ∆y =∆G (1/1-a)
.
2-2-
(∆T) (G).
(∆T) (∆y) :
Y+∆y = (1/1-a) ( C0-a (T+∆T) + I+ G.(7)
(7) (3)
∆y = (1/1-a)(-a∆T) = (-a/1-a) ∆T...(8)
: (-a/1-a) .
(1>a>0)
(1/1-a)> (a/1-a)
(∆G ) ∆Y
:
: 10 ∆G=10 0.6 (a =0.6) ∆y :
1 1
10 =25 =(∆G) ∆y=
0.6-1 1-a
25=∆y

: 10 ∆T=10 a= 0.6 ∆y :
0.6 -a
x10 =1,5x-10=15 =(∆T) ∆y=
0.6-1 1-a


(∆y) .
(T) .


3-
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3-1-2
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3-1-3
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ɡ ҡ . .
3-1-4
ڡ .
ǡ ߡ .
ϡ ɡ ɡ .
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.