:
:
1 -
2 -
3 -
4 -
5 -
6 -
7 -
8 -
9 -
10-

11-
12-
13-
14-

1- :
. ǡ ɡ .
ɡ ɡ ǡ ϡ , ɡ .
, .
ʡ .
. . ǡ 56% 79% ˡ 2000 6-7 ʡ .
1939 100 6 1939 2.5 1959.
ǡ 75 . 1984 73.000


ɡ 1200 . ( ) . 1874 .. ɡ .. ɡ 65 ɡ 1939 1948 1970 1500 1985 2500 ơ ɡ Salman 1953 Ripper 1969.
.. ɡ ɡ Werster 1969 Odum 1971
Phytoplanikton " " . . .. .
.. Long Island ɡ .. ߡ ǡ ߡ ǡ (1) (Werster 1996 Odam 1971) .
(1): ..
P . P . M
Water 0.0005
Plankton 0.04
Silvarside minnow 0.23
Sheephead 0.94
Pickerel (Predatony fish) 1.83
Needlefish (Predatory fish) 2.07
( ) Heron 3.57
Tern 3.91
Herring Gull 6.00
Fish Hawk (osprey) 6.00
Merganser (Fish-eating) 22.8
(Feed on larger fish) 26.4
(1) ϡ
1- ɡ .
2- .. ɡ .
3- .. . .

(2)
2- :
.. . ɡ .
3- :
ʡ :
1- : ʡ ɡ ʡ .
2- : ǡ ɡ ǡ
3- : 1976 Sevose ɡ ( 542) (8732 8732) (TCDD) .
4- : . ɡ .
(2) : :
INSECTICIDES AND ACARICIDES
Common Name Brands Available in Yemen
Carbaryl Carbocid 80% W.P.
Dicarbam 80% W.P.
Sevin 80% W.P
Carbofuran Curaterr 5% G.
Furadan 5% G.
Dekamethrin Decis 2.5% E. C.
Diazinon Basudin 60% E. C.
Diazinon 10 G.
Dimethoate Dimethoate 40% E. C.
Perfekhion 40% E. C.
Roger 40% E. C.
Roxion 40 E. C.
Dimethoate + Fenvalerate Mikantop 30 + 10% E. C.
Fenitrothion Sumithion 50 % Or 100 % E. C
Fenitrothion + Fenvalerate Sumi Combi 25 + 5% E. C.
Fenpropathrin Danitol 10% E. C.
Fenvalerate Sumicidin 20% E. C.
Malathion Malathion 50% E. C.
Permethrin Kafil 25% E. C
Petroleum Oils Mineral Oils
Oils
White Oils
Pirimiphos Methyl Actellic 50% E.C.
Primicarb Pirimor 50% W. P.
Trichlorfon Dipterex 80% S. P.
FUNGICIDES
Comom Names Grands Available In Yemen
Benomyl Benlate 50% W. P.
Bupirimate Nimrode 20% E. C.
Carboxin + Captan Vitavax 300 (Seed Dressing)
Carboxin + Thiram Vitavax 200 (Seed Dressing)
Copper Oxychloride Cobox 50% W. P.
Cobox Blue 50% W. P.
Copravit 50% W. P.
Dinocap Karathane 25% W. P.
Fearimol Rubigan 14% E. C.
Maneb Maneb 80% W. P.
Polyram M 80% W. P.
Metalaxyl Ridomil 5% G.
Metalaxyl + Mancozeb Ridomil Mz 48 + 10 W. P.
Metiram Metiram 80% W. P.
Polyram 80% W. P.
Polyram Combi 80% W. P.
Oxythioquinox Morestan 25% W. P.
Propineb Antracol 70% W. P.
Sulfur Kumulus 80% W. P.
Thiophanate Methyl Topsin M 70% W. P.
Triadimefon Bayleton5%W.C.
Triforine Saprol20%E.C.
(3) :
1- Aldrin 9- Efdacon 17- No Ratt
2-basfapon 10- FLM - Killer 18- Oftanol
3- BHC 11- Furdan 19- Racumin
4- Corbel Quino 12- Fusilade 20- Ragifon
5-Corbel Quino 13- Gamatox 21- Rogodial
6- DDT 14- Kelthan 22- Supracide
7- Dimecron 15- Krovari 23- Thidan
8- Efaryl 16- Miltox Special 24- Zinc Phosphide
4- :
ɡ ˡ ǡ . ɡ :
1- : ɡ ɡ . á .
ɡ . .. ǡ .. .
2- : ѡ .
ϡ .. ʡ 50% ʡ .
ɡ ʡ .
3- : ǡ ʡ ɡ .

5- :
. 1992 25 ɡ 20 . :
1- .
2- .
3- .
ǡ . .
" " ȡ ֡ ǡ .

1-
- Organochlorine insecticides)):
.
:
1- . . . (Dichloro- Diphenyl-Trichloroethane (D.D.T.
- Toxaphene - chlordan
- - Endosulphan (Thiodan) lindane
. ǡ .
:
- :
: - (parathion) - (malathion)
- (dipterex)
. .
: (cholinesterase) ǡ ( 40% 60%
(Parathion):

(parasympathetic) (anxiety)
- (Carbamate ):
:
Sevin
Isolan
Dimetan
Pyramat
Carbaryl
Propoxur
ɡ .
: .

2- (Fungicides) :
ǡ ӡ ʡ 텅 . (dinitrophenol) :
- - Dinocap- B - . . . . D.N.O.C.

3- (Herbicides):
.
: Paraquat
DDiaquat

4- ( ) Rodenticides :
(warfarin) .
5 - :
.
(copper arsenate) Ӆ. (zinc, 9phosphide Rat poison)
.
6 - :
(ȡ ֡ х.. ) .
: .
6- :
ǡ ѡ ɡ ɡ . . ɡ 100% .

7 - :
. ɡ .
. .
8 - :
. .. ޡ ѡ ǡ 50% 1 /
.. 45 ɡ 11 ǡ 1987 (2. 4 . 5 . ) .
( ) :
1- ( )
( 6-50 / ) (100-400 / ) . . DNA RNA .
.
.
DNA 200 / RNA 100 / 300 / .
2-
19 -62 . 0.1 % 1.3% 150 .
27- 55 37 62 . .
:
86 300 100 ( ) 100 .
:
.
.
:
. 4 ( 1-6)

22 21 20 19 18 17 16 6 5 4 3 2 1
43 43 55 38 41 36 27 37 49 47 62 45 47
17 17 38 13 10 10 3
100 100 100 42 100 100 100 300 100 224 103 86 217
9 14 13 7 16 9 16 9 6 8 5 2 12
8 12 11 7 12 7 17 7 5 5 5 2 11
2 2 4 1

1 1
.
1 2 2 1 2 1
10 16 15 16 20 13 17 3.6 7 5.8 4.8 2.3 5.9 %
(4) (1-6) (16- 22 ).
( 16-22 ) . 2.3 7 10 20 ( 3 ) .

4.9+ 1.71% 15.28 + 3.1 % ( ) ( / ) ( 12.14 + 3.84 % 4.4 + 1.39 % ) ( 4 ) .
- ( 5 )
(5) .
%

7 45 7
8 23 2 100 5 8 1 10
9 28 3 100 6 8 1 12
10 26 3.5 100 7 9 9
11 30 5 100 5 5 5
12 56 10 100 5 5 5
13 19 2.5 100 7 7 7
14 61 18 100 6 7 7
15 62 18 100 5 5 5
7 100 8 8 8
8 100 10 9 1 13
9 100 8 7 1 1 11
10 100 10 10 10
11 100 11 12 12
12 100 7 9 1 1 15
13 100 9 7 1 1 1 13
14 100 12 10 1 1 14
15 100 8 7 1 1 11
7 100 14 13 1 15
8 100 15 12 2 1 20
9 100 13 13 2 1 19
10 100 15 15 15
11 100 12 11 1 13
12 100 8 7 1 9
13 100 16 16 1 18
14 100 15 14 1 16
15 100 11 11 1 13
( 5 ) ( ) (7-15)

( 6)
( 7 12 (5) ) . ( ) ( ) .
( 4 ) ( )